Now that we’ve identified the assumption it is time to write the essay. However, there are a few preliminaries. One thing of note: you do not need to come up with as many assumptions as possible. Three or four is enough to build a solid essay on. And remember, you need to be persuasive, so do not simply list your assumptions without pointing out why they are assumptions and how they weaken the argument.
Also, do not at any point suggest that the argument has any merits. ETS has provided an argument that is full of unstated assumptions. You are to identify these logical gaps and, per the instructions, elaborate on how these unwarranted assumptions affect the argument.
Speaking of the insructions, I think it is important to reproduce them here, before we go on with the essay:
SuperCorp recently moved its headquarters to Corporateville. The recent surge in the number of homeowners in Corporateville prove that Corporateville is a superior place to live then Middlesburg, the home of SuperCorp’s current headquarters. Moreover, Middleburg is a predominately urban area and according to an employee survey, SuperCorp has determined that its workers prefer to live in an area that is not urban. Finally, Corporateville has lower taxes than Middlesburg, making it not only a safer place to work but also a cheaper one. Therefore, Supercorp clearly made the best decision.
“Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to explain how the argument depends on the assumptions and what the implications are if the assumptions prove unwarranted.”
With that out of the way, let’s start with the Intro. The Intro should be short and sweet. In fact, the intro for the Argument should really not contain any novel ideas. You simply want to say that the argument is unwarranted for a number of reasons. If you find yourself hung up on the intro, write it at the end. The key to the essay is the body, in which you identify the unwarranted assumptions. You do not want to waste precious minutes fiddling about with the Intro.
The argument makes a number of unwarranted assumptions regarding the corporation’s proposed move from Middleburg to Corporateville . Taken as a whole, these unstated assumptions render the argument highly suspect. Indeed, if these unstated assumptions do not hold true, then the argument totally falls apart.
Next we have the body paragraphs, in which you will point out the unstated assumptions that render the argument invalid. You can lump all into one massive paragraph or you can—as I do here—spread them into three paragraphs, one for each unstated assumption.
The argument assumes that the increase in homeowners is directly correlated with improved living, or, as the argument states, “a superior place to live.” Housing could simply be cheaper, causing an influx of people. That is the increase of population does not mean that everybody wants to live in Corporateville because it is such a great place. Indeed low-priced housing and overcrowding clearly would make Corporatville a less superior place to live.
Notice how I ended the argument by referring back to what the instructions asked us to do: “Be sure to explain how the argument depends on the assumptions and what the implications are if the assumptions prove unwarranted.”
Body Paragraph #2
Another unstated assumption the argument makes is that what is superior for residents is the same as what is superior for corporations. Thus, even if everybody wants to move to Corporateville because it is a superior place to live, that doesn’t mean it is a superior place for a company to move its headquarters. For instance, perhaps Corporateville has an excellent public school system and/or natural parks. Neither of these would make Corporateville a superior place for a corporation. Unless the argument can show that there is clear reason that Corporateville is superior to Middletown for a corporation, then the corporation could be making the wrong decision in moving to Corporateville.
Body Paragraph #3
For this body paragraph, I would focus on the survey. This is probably the strongest unstated assumption remaining (the survey is a valid measure). However, you can choose to focus on taxes or urban vs. non-urban. Do not, however, try to jam all the assumptions. Your focus is to show that the essay makes many unproven assumptions and is thus invalid. Pointing out several assumptions is enough. Unless you have time, do not be exhaustive.
Like the intro, the conclusion should be short and sweet. Do not add new information; simply give a brief summary of what you’ve already said. Something along the lines of:
The argument makes a number of unstated assumptions that seriously undermine its validity. Unless these assumptions are addressed the argument falls apart, and the corporation could very well make a major mistake shifting operations from Middleburg to Corporateville.
The above provides a rough template to help you create a compelling essay for the Argument portion of the Revised GRE Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA).
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GRE For High Scorers, Part 6: GRE Issue Essays
Structuring Your GRE Issue Essay
Should you use a template, given that the Issue essay is the very first thing you'll have to do on GRE day? Or are you a good enough writer to create your own structure on the fly? I've had high-scoring writers really benefit from using a template for the GRE issue essay. Others, of course, scoff at the idea because they're such good writers. Either way, first of all, high scorers should follow the advice that everyone should follow, just to get as used to the task as possible:
"Actions: read Chapter 2 and all sample essays and commentary in The Official Guide, as well as those in the Verbal Practice book. These are great models for your writing since you can see what the ETS graders reward. Pay very close attention to the grader commentary.
Read and brainstorm the topics for the Issue essay and the topics for the Argument essay. Write essays untimed, then timed. Compare them to the sample essays in the ETS books. I highly recommend getting a good writer to look at your essays. They Say, I Say is the best book I know of to improve your writing."
Ok, assuming you've gotten started on the above, I want to give you some insight about what you need to do to get a 6.
Analysis Of A Real GRE Issue Essay That Received A 6
You may notice that many Issue Essay prompts make statements that are difficult to fully support. The example and response I want to use first is this one about technology (link is to the GRE's website). Go ahead and read the prompt, then read the "6" response just below it. Now, let's think about its statement:
As people rely more and more on technology to solve problems, the ability of humans to think for themselves will surely deteriorate.
Notice that this statement - like many Issue statements - would be difficult to agree with 100% of the time. Good responses will acknowledge the complexity of the issue and respond in an insightful way to that complexity. This response does that partly by discussing the reasoning that might be used by someone who agrees with the statement (in paragraph 2):
The statement attempts to bridge these dramatic changes to a reduction in the ability for humans to think for themselves. The assumption is that an increased reliance on technology negates the need for people to think creatively to solve previous quandaries. Looking back at the introduction, one could argue that without a car, computer, or mobile phone, the hypothetical worker would need to find alternate methods of transport, information processing and communication. Technology short circuits this thinking by making the problems obsolete.
Good writers often begin this way - they talk about their opponents' views, then respond with their own. This provides context and a framework for their argument. Writing a persuasive essay without addressing the reasoning of other points-of-view is like pretending your point-of-view exists in a vacuum with no one to challenge it.
Now let's look at a paragraph that continues to acknowledge the complexity of the issue in an insightful way (paragraph 3):
However, this reliance on technology does not necessarily preclude the creativity that marks the human species. The prior examples reveal that technology allows for convenience. The car, computer and phone all release additional time for people to live more efficiently. This efficiency does not preclude the need for humans to think for themselves. In fact, technology frees humanity to not only tackle new problems, but may itself create new issues that did not exist without technology. For example, the proliferation of automobiles has introduced a need for fuel conservation on a global scale. With increasing energy demands from emerging markets, global warming becomes a concern inconceivable to the horse-and-buggy generation. Likewise dependence on oil has created nation-states that are not dependent on taxation, allowing ruling parties to oppress minority groups such as women. Solutions to these complex problems require the unfettered imaginations of maverick scientists and politicians.
I like this paragraph a lot because not only does the author make an insightful point that technology gives people more time to think, but that technology itself creates problems that require thinking. This is a step up from what I think the average writer might do - just cite an example of technology that helps us think or that we need to think to use. Now, you don't always need this level of insight, but it's a good example of what might separate a 6 from a 5. Compelling reasoning and depth of thought are rewarded.
I also like that this essay creates a critical context with the first paragraph, defining the scope of what it's going to discuss. It's the one I most talk about if a higher-scoring student wants some kind of GRE issue essay template, too. It's nice to have a go-to structure when you've only got 29 minutes and 37 seconds and the clock is relentlessly ticking...
Another example I like in the Verbal Reasoning Practice Book is the 6 essay response to a prompt about "People should obey just laws and disobey unjust laws". The author spends some time questioning the context to apply "just" - i.e., what is more important, being just to the individual or just to society? The author also questions how to define "just": if a society is brainwashed, can "just" have any meaning? I like this approach, since, again, it acknowledges the complexity and complications of forming a position on that issue.
How To Effectively Choose And Use Examples In The Issue Essay
Many of my students find it difficult at first to think of relevant examples to support the arguments they make when writing the GRE issue essay. In this section, I’ll give you one of my favorite GRE essay tips: how to choose strong examples.
Again, just so we have some context, here’s a sample Issue essay prompt:
“Employees at all levels of a corporation should be involved in that corporation’s short and long term goal planning.”
Now, one trap I want you to avoid falling into is thinking you have to have specialized knowledge of the topic. You might say to yourself that you’ve never worked for a corporation and that you don’t know how corporations typically plan. The good news is that you can still write a good essay about the topic using what you do know.
For example, let’s say you mostly agree with the statement and wanted to think of an example you could use. You could use an example from real life – perhaps you could talk about how employees at Google are encouraged to use 20% of their time to work on projects they think will benefit the company.
Even if you couldn’t think of a real life example, you might use a hypothetical example and talk about how if an airline asked all employees about its plans for the future, flight attendants might provide unique insights into what customers like and don’t like.
One strategy I like to recommend is to instead of thinking of what the perfect GRE issue essay examples might be, think about what you know well and see if it could fit. This will encourage you to choose examples you know well, making it easier to write insightfully about them. It might be a good idea to make a list of your personal “go-to” topics – things you can easily talk or write about. You’ll find that you can use many of them for many essays – don’t let the first thing that comes to mind box you in. Essay topics are designed so that almost anyone can write about them.
For example, I love reading The Economist. Since I read it every week, I usually have been thinking about some current events that I can apply to many Issue topics. Also, reading like this builds up a storehouse of information that you can dip into, making it increasingly likely you'll be inspired when a random topic pops up on the screen.
Remember, the GRE issue essay examples you choose matter, but they must be used skillfully. Practice brainstorming lots of different essay prompts from the ETS website to get used to coming up with examples that you can use to support your point of view.
Another reminder: I am available if you want a human to grade / give feedback on your essays. Just get in touch with me if you're interested. In my experience, this is the one part of the test that students tend to under-prepare for. No matter how you prepare for the essays, make sure that you at least write a few of each type before you actually take the real GRE.
Final Issue Essay Thoughts
Check out all the 6 responses in the ETS books (there are five "6" responses for the Issue task, and five for the Argument task). These will give you more ideas about what the highest-scoring essays do. Just keep in mind that these are paradigms of "6" responses... you don't always have to be that good to earn a "6". Again, I think one of the most valuable things you can do is to find an essay structure you like and create your own issue essay template out of it, so you have a "go-to" structure on test day.
Also a reminder that you can work with me if you're looking for issue essay feedback. Just get in touch if you'd like some personalized help.