A how-to essay is an essay that explains how to do something. It could be something as simple as “How to Bake Brownies” to something as complex as “How to Build a Nuclear Reactor.” In the essay, you’ll dissect the entire process from start to finish and include all the information necessary for the reader to achieve a successful result.
How-to essays aren’t difficult, but they do require you to pay close attention to details.
Here’s what you need to remember when writing a how-to essay:
Pick a Topic
Maybe you’ll be assigned a topic or maybe you’ll be given free rein to choose your own. In the event you have to pick a subject, it’s better for you to write about something you already know about. For example, if you know nothing about car mechanics, maybe you shouldn’t write an essay on how to change your transmission fluid.
Make a List of Materials
If your essay involves making or doing something physical, then you should include a complete list of materials for your reader. Write down everything they’ll need to finish the task.
Write an Outline of Steps
Jot down the basic instructions that need to be followed. You can finesse the language later. Just get the essential ideas down first.
Write an Essay Outline
A how-to essay usually follows a particular form that includes:
- Introduction - Tell the reader what you’re going to be teaching them how to do: In this essay, I’m going to show you how to make the best brownies in under fifteen minutes.
- List of materials - Usually a list of materials comes next: In order to bake brownies, here’s a list of ingredients and cooking tools you’ll need…
- Numbered steps - How-to essays usually include numbered steps where you’ll provide detailed instructions of each procedure.
- Action - If you’re writing about something like how to fix a car engine or how to make a lamp, there will be a point where they will have to turn on the car or the lamp. Include that step if it applies to you.
- Conclusion - Briefly summarize the more important steps and let the reader know what kind of results they can expect if they followed them.
What Else to Include
- Tips - You can give helpful tips as well. For example, if you’re giving instructions on baking brownies, it’s not essential that the reader mix the eggs and milk and oil separately before adding the brownie mix, but it can help avoid over-mixing with the dry ingredients which can make the texture more tough. This is not an essential part of the procedure, but it demonstrates your knowledge of the subject and gives the reader more information and more options. However, you should avoid going into micro-details. You don’t need to explain how the chemical reaction of the ingredients works to produce brownies. But the occasional bit of expert advice that can help provide a better result is a welcome addition.
- Procedural phrases - Guide your reader with words like first, next, last, simultaneously, separately, afterwards, before and other words that highlight order or technique.
Test It Out
It can be easy to miss steps or to explain something in a way that leaves room for misinterpretation. The best way to make sure your essay is error-free is to have someone else follow your steps and see if your instructions work. Make sure you watch them as they go through your procedure step by step. Resist the temptation to give advice or correct things while they’re in the middle of it, but take notes to see what might need to be added or modified in your final draft.
After testing it out on a friend, it’s time to edit your text. Include any missed steps, make sure you’ve used procedural phrases and, if possible, test it out one more time before calling it a wrap.
Good luck and happy how-to writing!
Project Tiger is a tiger conservation programme launched on 1 April 1973 by the Government of India during Prime MinisterIndira Gandhi's tenure. The project aims at ensuring a viable population of Bengal tigers in their natural habitats and also to protect them from extinction, and preserving areas of biological importance as a natural heritage forever represented as close as possible the diversity of ecosystems across the tiger's distribution in the country. The project's task force visualized these tiger reserves as breeding nuclei, from which surplus animals would migrate to adjacent forests. The Funds and commitment were mastered to support the intensive program of habitat protection and rehabilitation under the project. The government has set up a Tiger Protection Force to combat poachers and funded relocation of villagers to minimize human-tiger conflicts.
During the tiger census of 2006, a new methodology was used extrapolating site-specific densities of tigers, their co-predators and prey derived from camera trap and sign surveys using GIS. Based on the result of these surveys, the total tiger population has been estimated at 1,411 individuals ranging from 1,165 to 1,657 adult and sub-adult tigers of more than 1.5 years of age. Owing to the project, the number of tigers has improved to 2,226 as per the latest census report released on 20 January 2015.
Project tiger's main aim was to:
- Limit factors that leads to reduction of tiger habitats and to mitigate them by suitable management. The damages done to the habitat were to be rectified so as to facilitate the recovery of the ecosystem to the maximum possible extent.
- To ensure a viable population of tigers for economic, scientific, cultural, aesthetic and ecological values.
The Indian tiger population at the turn of the 20th century was estimated at 20,000 to 40,000 individuals. The first country-wide tiger census conducted in 1972 estimated the population to comprise a little more than 1,800 individuals, a reduction in tiger population.
In 1973, the project was launched in the Corbett National Park of Uttarakhand.
Project Tiger is administered by the National Tiger Conservation Authority. The overall administration of the project is monitored by a steering committee headed by a director. A field director is appointed for each reserve, who is assisted by a group of field and technical personnel.
- Shivalik-terai conservation unit
- North-East conservation unit
- Sunderbans conservation unit
- Western ghats conservation unit
- Eastern ghats conservation unit
- Central India conservation unit
- Sariska conservation unit
- Kaziranga Conservation Unit
The various tiger reserves were created in the country based on 'core-buffer' strategy:
1.Core area: The core areas are freed of all human activities.It has the legal status of a national park or wildlife sanctuary.It is kept free of biotic disturbances and forestry operations like collection of minor forest produce,grazing,and other human disturbances are not allowed within.
2.Buffer areas:The buffer areas are subjected to 'conservation-oriented land use'. It comprises forest and non-forest land.It is a multi-purpose use area with twin objectives of providing habitat supplement to spillover population of wild animals from core conservation unit and to provide site specific co-developmental inputs to surrounding villages for relieving their impact on core area. For each tiger reserve, management plans were drawn up based on the following principles:
- Elimination of all forms of human exploitation and biotic disturbance from the core area and rationalization of activities in the buffer zone
- Restricting the habitat management only to repair the damages done to the ecosystem by human and other interferences so as to facilitate recovery of the ecosystem to its natural state
- Monitoring the faunal and floral changes over time and carrying out research about wildlife
By the late 1980s, the initial nine reserves covering an area of 9,115 square kilometers (3,519 square miles) had been increased to 15 reserves covering an area of 24,700 km2 (9,500 sq mi). More than 1100 tigers were estimated to inhabit the reserves by 1984. By 1997, 23 tiger reserves encompassed an area of 33,000 km2 (13,000 sq mi), but the fate of tiger habitat outside the reserves was precarious, due to pressure on habitat, incessant poaching and large-scale development projects such as dams, industry and mines.
Wireless communication systems and outstation patrol camps have been developed within the tiger reserves, due to which poaching has declined considerably. Fire protection is effectively done by suitable preventive and control measures. Voluntary Village relocation has been done in many reserves, especially from the core, area. Live stock grazing has been controlled to a great extent in the tiger reserves. Various compensatory developmental works have improved the water regime and the ground and field level vegetation, thereby increasing the animal density. Research data pertaining to vegetation changes are also available from many reserves. Future plans include use of advanced information and communication technology in wildlife protection and crime management in tiger reserves, GIS based digitized database development and devising a new tiger habitat and population evaluation system.
Controversies and problems
Project Tiger's efforts were hampered by poaching, as well as debacles and irregularities in Sariska and Namdapha, both of which were reported extensively in the Indian media. The Forest Rights Act passed by the Indian government in 2006 recognizes the rights of some forest dwelling communities in forest areas. This has led to controversy over implications of such recognition for tiger conservation. Some have argued that this is problematic as it will increase conflict and opportunities for poaching; some also assert that "tigers and humans cannot co-exist". Others argue that this is a limited perspective that overlooks the reality of human-tiger coexistence and the role of abuse of power by authorities, rather than local people, in the tiger crisis. This position was supported by the Government of India's Tiger Task Force, and is also taken by some forest dwellers' organizations.
- ^ abcPanwar, H. S. (1987). "Project Tiger: The reserves, the tigers, and their future". In Tilson, R. L.; Sel, U. S. Tigers of the world: the biology, biopolitics, management, and conservation of an endangered species. Park Ridge, N.J.: Minnesota Zoological Garden, IUCN/SSC Captive Breeding Group, IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group. pp. 110–117.
- ^Jhala, Y. V., Gopal, R., Qureshi, Q. (eds.) (2008). Status of the Tigers, Co-predators, and Prey in India(PDF). TR 08/001. National Tiger Conservation Authority, Govt. of India, New Delhi; Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2 June 2013.
- ^"Tiger population grows". CNN IBN.
- ^Thapar, V. (1999). The tragedy of the Indian tiger: starting from scratch. In: Seidensticker, J., Christie, S., Jackson, P. (eds.) Riding the Tiger. Tiger Conservation in human-dominated landscapes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. hardback ISBN 0-521-64057-1, paperback ISBN 0-521-64835-1. pp. 296–306.
- ^Buncombe, A. (31 October 2007) The face of a doomed species. The Independent
- ^Strahorn, Eric A. (2009-01-01). An Environmental History of Postcolonial North India: The Himalayan Tarai in Uttar Pradesh and Uttaranchal. Peter Lang. p. 118. ISBN 9781433105807.
- ^Government of India (2005) Tiger Task Force ReportArchived 27 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine..
- ^Campaign for Survival and Dignity Tiger Conservation: A Disaster in the MakingArchived 11 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. forestrightsact.com