Cellular Respiration Term Paper

1. The oxygen consumption of blood of normal individuals, when the hemoglobin is saturated with oxygen, is practically zero within the limits of experimental error of the microspirometer used. 2. The oxygen consumed in a microspirometer by the blood of patients with chronic myelogenous leucemia with a high white blood cell count, and of one with leucocytosis from sepsis, was proportional to the number of adult polymorphonuclear neutrophils in the blood. 3. No correlation could be made between the rate of oxygen absorption and the total number of white blood cells in the blood, or the total number of immature cells, or the number of red blood cells, or the amount of oxyhemoglobin. 4. The blood of patients with chronic myelogenous leucemia continued to use oxygen in the microspirometer longer than that of normal individuals, and the hemoglobin, in the leucemic bloods, became desaturated even though exposed to air. 5. In blood in which the bulk. of the cells were immature and the mature cells few, the oxygen consumption was lower than in blood in which the mature cells predominated. The rate of oxygen consumption of the immature cells was relatively low as compared to the mature. 6. The slower rate of oxygen absorption by the immature leucocytes in chronic myelogenous leucemia as compared to the mature cells, places them, in accord with Warburg's reports, in the class of the malignant tissues in this respect rather than in the group of young or embryonic cells.

 

ABSTRACT The factors affecting the rate of cellular respiration was determined through the use of controls; one for the oxygen uptake of multicellular organisms and another for the cellular respiration in yeast. For the oxygen uptake of the organism, three flasks set-ups were made and it was found out that protein was the utilized substrate of the organism. For the cellular respiration of yeast, two methods were used; the Durham tube method and the Smith fermentation method. In the Durham tube method, the second set-up had a faster rate of CO

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 production because of the presence of magnesium which activated enzymes. In the Smith fermentation tube, glucose had the fastest rate of CO

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 production. Thus, oxygen intake, the co-factors and the type of substrate affects the rate of cellular respiration. INTRODUCTION In cellular respiration, energy in food molecules is released and converted to a form that can be used by the cell, which is ATP. The term respiration is often used to mean breathing or

simply “the process of inhaling and exhaling.” For clarity, the term

cellular respiration is used to refer specifically to a series of enzymatic reactions that can occur in the presence or absence of oxygen and make energy available to the cell. (Mañosa and Talaue, 2007) Organic compounds store energy in their arrangements of atoms. With the help of enzymes, a cell systematically degrades complex organic molecules that are rich in  potential energy to simpler waste products that have less energy. Some of the energy taken out of chemical storage can be used to do work, the rest dissipated as heat. Metabolic pathways that release stored energy by breaking down complex molecules are called catabolic pathways. One catabolic process, called fermentation, is a partial degradation of sugars that occurs without the help of oxygen. However, the most

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